The Republic of Fiji
Fiji is a Pacific island nation comprising approximately 300 islands of which a third are inhabited, Fiji's Exclusive Economic Zone, bounded by the 200-mile limit, covers some 1.3 million kmē .
In 1970 Fiji became a fully independent nation and is now a sovereign democratic republic with a President as Head of State. Fijians and Indians are the major groups in a multi-racial society. The total population is about 725,000 of which 75% live on the main island of Viti Levu and a further 18% on Vanua Levu, the second largest island.
Fiji has a tropical climate with the capital Suva lying at about latitude 18o south. The average temperature is 25oC. The southeast tradewinds prevail from June to October resulting in high rainfall on Fiji's southeast-facing coastlines. Tropical cyclones can occur between November and April.
Tourism and sugar cane production are the mainstays of the economy. The success of tourism, which accounts for 74% of foreign exchange earnings, is due as much to the warmth and friendliness of the Fijians themselves as to the South Pacific island setting.
Sugar cane is the major cash crop and accounts for about 60% of Fiji's exports. Gold is produced from one mine at Vatukoula on Viti Levu and is the third major earner of foreign exchange. A major new copper prospect at Namosi, on Viti Levu, is currently being evaluated. Other significant industries include garments, fishing and forestry.
The capital, Suva is the main centre for government, commerce, trade and communications. Fiji has two international airports, Nadi on the west coast, is used by all major carriers to Australia, Japan, New Zealand and the USA, as well as to other South Pacific countries and to Fiji's outlying islands. Nausori Airport near Suva services South Pacific countries, including Tonga and New Zealand, and outlying islands.
Sea ports of entry are Suva, Lautoka (Viti Levu) and Levuka (Ovalau). Regular cargo services from Australia, Europe, Japan, New Zealand, Southeast Asia and the USA are provided by a number of lines.
All relevant petroleum data are available in the Fiji Petroleum Data Package, including seismic, magnetic and gravity data, well logs, and reports. The Data Packages are stored on behalf of the Government of Fiji at the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) Petroleum Data Bank. The data can be supplied at costs of reproduction and mailing. Catalogues of the Data Package listing all data are also available. Requests for the catalogues and orders for data should be directed to:
The SOPAC Data Manager
Copies of all Fiji's petroleum data together with relevant regional geological information are available for viewing at the Technical Secretariat of SOPAC. For further information and appointments, contact:
Government Printing & Stationery Department
1. Pflueger, J. 1989. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lau Ridge: Reid Reef to Ogea Levu Island. SOPAC Technical Report 163.
2. Johnson, H. 1991, Petroleum geology of Fiji. Marine Geology 98: 313-352.
3. Rodd J.A. 1993. The hydrocarbon potential of Fiji. SOPAC Technical Report 169.
4. Eden, R.A. and Smith, R. 1984. Fiji as a petroleum prospect. Fiji Mineral Resources Department, Suva, Fiji.
5. Falvey, D.A.,Collwell, J.B., Coleman, P.J., Greene, H.G. Vedder, J.G. and Bruns, T.R. 1991. Petroleum prospectivity of Pacific island arcs: Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Australian Petroleum Exploration Association Journal 1991: 191-212.
6. Rodda, P. (in press). Geology of Fiji, in Stevenson, A.J., Herzer, R.H. and Ballance, P.F. (eds) Contributions to the marine and on-land geology and resources of the Tonga-Lau-Fiji region. SOPAC Technical Bulletin.
7. Wessel, G.R. 1986. The geology of plate margins. Geological Society of America Map and Chart Series MC-59.
8. Brocher, T.M. and Holmes, R. 1985. The marine geology of sedimentary basins south of Viti Levu. In Brocher, T.M. (ed) Geological investigations of the Northern Melanesian Borderland. Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources, Earth Science Series 3: 123-138.
9. Gill, J.B., Stork, A.L. and Whelan, P.M. 1984. Volcanism accompanying back-arc basin development in the Southwest Pacific. Tectonophysics 102:207-224.
10. Woodhall, D. 1985. Geology of the Lau Ridge. In Scholl, D.W. and Vallier, T.L. (eds) Geology and Offshore Resources of the Pacific Island Arcs - Tonga Region. Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources, Earth Science Series 2:351-378.
11. Summons, R.E., Murray, A.P., Juodvalkis, A., Hope, J.M. and Reyes, E.N. 1992 Hydrocarbon composition of the Pili oil seep of Tongatapu. Australian Geological Survey Analysis and Report, Onshore Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology Program.
12. Glickson, M. 1988. Miocene reef- derived deposits in Vanuatu - Possible petroleum source rocks. In Greene, H.G. and Wong, F.L. (eds). Geology and Offshore Resources of Pacific Island Arcs - Vanuatu Region. Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources, Earth Sciences Series 8: 267-274.
13. Horvitz Research Laboratories Inc. 1979. Hydrocarbon survey block "A" offshore Fiji. Horvitz Research Laboratory Inc. (unpublished report, Mineral Resources Department, Fiji, 790140).
14. Stahl, W. 1979. Carbon isotope study on ten seafloor samples from Bligh Water, (unpublished report, Mineral Resources Department, Fiji, Hydrocarbons Archive file no. 790143).
15. Sarg, J.F. 1988. Carbonate sequence stratigraphy. In Wilgus, C.K. et al. (eds) Sea-Level Changes: an Integrated Approach. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 42: 155-182.
16. Schlager, W. 1992. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of reefs and carbonate platforms. AAPG Continuing Education Course Note 34.
17. Durkee, E.F. 1990. Pasca-Pandora reef exploration in the Gulf of Papua. In Carman, G.J. and Carman, Z. (eds) Petroleum Exploration in Papua New Guinea. Proceedings of the First PNG Petroleum Convention, Port Moresby: 567-579.
The author completed this work whilst engaged as Petroleum Coordinator at the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC), based in Fiji, and funded by the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation. Cristelle Pratt (Fiji Government's Mineral Resources Department, MRD) assisted in researching Fiji's exploration history and in the compilation of source rock data. Luna Wong (MRD) provided the seismic line location map. The photographic of Sawa-i-Lau island was supplied by Werner Schneider of the Institute for Geology and Paleontology, University of Technischen, Germany. All figures were drafted by Phil Woodward and Niko Naibitakele (SOPAC). Comments on the original draft by colleagues at MRD and SOPAC are much appreciated. Publication by SOPAC was funded principally by the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau with additional support from the New Zealand Government and the EC.